One of the largest transmission systems in the world
The transmission lines in Brazil are usually extensive as the large hydroelectric plants are generally a long way from the electrical energy consumer centers. Brazil has one of the largest power transmission systems in the world, totaling approximately 102,000 kilometers of lines.
The country is now almost entirely linked up from north to south. Only Amazonas, Roraima, Acre, Amapá, Rondônia and a part of Pará are still not within the national integrated grid system. These states are supplied by small thermal electric plants or hydroelectric plants located close to their state capitals. The Madeira line, which runs for almost 2,400 kilometers, will be the largest energy transmission system in the world and be built with continuous current technology which allows the power to be transmitted over greater distances.
The interlinked system allows the different regions to receive energy from other parts of the country when there is a fall in the levels of any of their reservoirs. As the rainy season is different in the South, Southeast, North and Northeast regions, the large trunk lines (which transmit the highest tension: 500 kV or 750 kV) allow those regions which do not have enough energy to be supplied by generation centers in a favorable location. This transmission is carried out at different tensions according to the plant´s distance from the destination of the power. The further the distance, the greater the voltage, due to the physical losses of the system.
|Distance by Level of Tension|
|- 765 kV||2698.00 km|
|- 600 kV||4044.00 km|
|- 525 kV||5225.65 km|
|- 500 kV||29643.97 km|
|- 440 kV||6829.93 km|
|- 345 kV||9360.32 km|
|- 230 kV||44056.21 km|
|Number of Lines (LT Module) by level of tension
|- 765 kV||(9)|
|- 600 kV||(5)|
|- 525 kV||(44)|
|- 500 kV||(200)|
|- 440 kV||(54)|
|- 345 kV||(131)|
|- 230 kV||(747)|
The payment received by the transmission concession holders is known as the annual permitted revenues (RAP) which is an amount fixed at the tender auction by the concession granting body and corresponds to the costs of using the installations to provide the public with the transmission of electrical energy. The winner of the tender is the operator which can guarantee the service at the lowest permitted annual cost.
|POSITION||TRANSMISSION COMPANY||ANNUAL REVENUES (R$)||%|
The distribution concession holder exploits the service in a fixed geographical area and holds a monopoly, i.e. it provides all the network services to the clients in that region and is responsible for operating, maintaining and expanding this network.
The final consumers of the electrical energy pay an amount which corresponds to the quantity of energy consumed the previous month, established in kWh (kilowatt-hour) multiplied by a unit amount, called the tariff, measured in R$/kWh (Reais per kilowatt-hour) which corresponds to the price of a kilowatt consumed in an hour.
The power companies provide this service in the area where they have been given permission to deliver the public electrical energy distribution service.
It is the responsibility of the National Electrical Energy Agency (Aneel) to set the tariffs, which ensure that the consumer pays a fair price, and also to guarantee that the concession holder obtains a suitable financial return to allow it to provide a high quality service which is reliable and sustainable.